Clio In Time
January 1, 44 B.C. Julius Caesar introduces a new calendar for the Roman Republic.
Movie: Hail Caesar: Julius Caesar (1998) - Documentary
Book: Mathias Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman
January 2, 1635 Cardinal Richelieu founds the Academie Francaise.
Movie: Richelieu(1914) Allan Dwan
Book: Anthony Levi, Richelieu and the Making of France
January 3, 1892 J.R.R. Tolkien, author of The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings, is born in South Africa.
Movie: The Lord of the Rings Trilogy (2001) Peter Jackson
Book: J. R. R. Tolkien, Lord of the Rings
January 4, 1960 Albert Camus, a Nobel Prize winner and leading French author, is killed in an automobile crash.
Movie: La Peste (1992) William Hurt
Book: Albert Camus, The Plague
January 5, 1975 Khmer Rouge communist troops attack the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh.
Movie: The Killing Fields (1984) Sam Waterston
Book: Chanrithy Him, When Broken Glass Floats
January 6, 1066 Harold the Saxon is crowned King of England following the death of Edward the Confessor.
Movie: Harold the Last of the Saxons (1919) Sidney Drew
Book: Ian Walker, Harold: The Last Anglo-Saxon King
January 7, 1789 George Washington is elected to be the first president of the United States.
Movie: George Washington, "The Man Who Wouldn't Be King" (1992) Documentary
Book: Robert F. Jones, George Washington: Ordinary Man, Extraordinary Leader
January 8, 794 Viking marauders launch deadly attack on the monastery of Lindisfarne long famous as a center of scholarship and art.
Movie: Lindisfarne Gospels (1999) - Documentary
Book: John Marsden, The Fury of the Northmen: Saints, Shrines and Sea-Raiders in the Viking Age, A.D. 793-878
January 9, 1908 Simone de Beauvoir, future feminist critic and noted author, is born in France.
Movie: Simone de Beauvoir (1982) - Documentary
Book: Simone de Beauvoir, Adieu: A Farewell to Sartre
January 10, 1971 Famous fashion designer, Coco Chanel dies in Paris.
Movie: Chanel Chanel (1988) - Documentary
Book: Axel Madsen, Chanel: A Woman of Her Own
January 11, 1928 Following Poet and novelist Thomas Hardy's wishes, his family announces today, that his body will be buried in Westminster Abbey while his heart will be buried in the small graveyard at Stinsford near Dorchester, Dorset
Movie: Wessex Tales (1973) Ben Kingsley
Book: Tom Howard, Hardy Country
January 12, 1879 The dramatic confrontation between the Zulu Nation and the British Empire begins in South Africa.
Movie: Zulu Dawn (1979) Burt Lancaster
Book: Thomas J. Lucas, The Zulus and the British Frontiers
January 13, 1898 Author and journalist Emile Zola publishes a sensational letter, entitled, “J’Accuse,” in the Parisian newspaper, L’Aurore, attacking the French military and the government’s handling of the notorious Dreyfus Case.
Movie: The Life of Emile Zola (1937) Paul Muni
Book: Frederick Brown, Zola: A Life
January 14, 1938 Walt Disney’s first full-length Technicolor film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, opens in theaters nationally.
Movie: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) - Animation
Book: Katherine Barret et al., Inside the Dream: the Personal Story of Walt Disney
January 15, 1558 Queen Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England.
Movie: Elizabeth (1998) Cate Blanchett
Book: David Starkey, Elizabeth I: The Struggle for the Throne 2000
January 16, 1893 The last Queen of Hawaii is overthrown in an American coup aimed at annexation of the islands.
Movie: Hawaii's Last Queen - Documentary - The American Experience series
Book: George Kanahele, Emma: Hawaii's Remarkable Queen
January 17, 1773 Captain James Cook in the ship Resolution is the first explorer to cross the Antarctic circle.
Movie: The Golden Age of Exploration (1997) - Documentary
Book: Brian Adams, The Flowering of the Pacific
January 18, 1803 President Thomas Jefferson requests funds from Congress to finance the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Movie: The Trail - Lewis and Clark Expedition - Documentary
Book: Meriwether Lewis et al., The Journals of Lewis and Clark
January 19, 1706 Benjamin Franklin, American patriot, scientist and wit, is born in Boston, Massachusetts.
Movie: Benjamin Franklin (A&E)-Biography
Book: H. W. Brands, The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2000)
January 20, 1954 The play The Caine Mutiny Court Martial opens in New York City.
Movie: The Caine Mutiny Court Martial (1954) Humphrey Bogart
Book: Herman Wouk, The Caine Mutiny: A Novel of World War II
January 21, 1793 Louis XVI is guillotined in Paris initiating the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution.
Movie: Marie Antoinette (A&E)-Biography
Book: David P. Jordan, King's Trial: Louis XVI vs. the French Revolution (1981)
January 22, 1901 Queen Victoria, who became Queen in 1837, dies at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight ending one of the longest reigns in European history.
Movie: An Evening at Osborne, Prunella Scales
Book: Christopher Hibbert, Queen Victoria: A Personal History (2000)
January 23, 1926 The play, The Great God Brown,by Eugene O Neill opens in New York City.
Movie: Eugene O'Neill: Journey into Genius - Documentary
Book: Stephen A. Black, Beyond Mourning and Tragedy (1999)
January 24, 41 The Roman Emperor Caligula is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard and is replaced by his uncle Claudius.
Movie: I, Claudius (PBS)
Book: Robert Graves, I, Claudius
January 25, 1890 Pioneering female reporter Nellie Bly completes an around the world trip in less than 80 days.
Movie: Around the World in 72 days (1997) American Experience series
Book: Charles Fredeen, Nellie Bly: Daredevil Reporter (1999)
January 26, 1942 Admiral Kimmel, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Fleet at Pearl Harbor when the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack occurred, is found guilty of dereliction of duty.
Movie: Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970) Martin Balsam
Book: Robert Stinnett et al., Day of Deceit (1999)
January 27, 1756 Master musicianWolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born in Austria.
Movie: Amadeus (1984) F. Murray Abraham
Book: Maynard Solomon, Mozart: A Life (1996)
January 28, 1547 Edward VI, at the age of nine, succeeds Henry VIII to the throne of England.
Movie: Lady Jane Grey (1986) Helena Bonham Carter
Book: Jennifer Loach et al., Edward VI (1999)
January 29, 1950 President Harry Truman establishes the Central Intelligence Agency.
Movie: The C.I.A. - The Complete Files (1993) - Documentary
Book: David F. Rudgers, Creating the Secret State (2000)
January 30, 1835 Richard Lawrence fires two shots at President Andrew Jackson in a failed assassination attempt.
Movie: Andrew Jackson (A&E)-Biography
Book: Milton Meltzer, Andrew Jackson and His America (1993)
January 31, 1943 The German Army at Stalingrad surrenders to the Soviets.
Movie: Stalingrad (1993)
Book: Antony Beevor, Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege, 1942-1943 (1999)